Two Tales of a City – How Detroit Transcended Ideology to Reform Pensions

“I see a beautiful city and a brilliant people rising from this abyss.”
–  Charles Dickens, Tale of Two Cities

Traveling through suburban Detroit, a sprawling city of 143 square miles whose population has dropped from nearly two million to less than 700,000, you can often imagine you are in rural Tennessee. Rutted narrow roads bend past groves of cottonwood, oak and silver maple. Deer and jack rabbits forage in tall grass. Until you pass a burned out ruin of a home, not yet removed, obscured by greenery, it is difficult to imagine that these neighborhoods once were filled with homes, set 35 feet apart and carpeting the land for mile after mile.

According to the so-called “right wing propaganda machine,” the tale of Detroit’s demise is attributed to the unchecked power of labor unions. Private sector unions were inflexible in the face of foreign competition, driving Detroit’s auto industry into irreversible decline. Public sector unions gobbled up every dime of taxpayer revenue they could bully and intimidate politicians into granting, further straining the finances of an already imploding city. Financially unsustainable pension benefits, ultimately, drove the city of Detroit into bankruptcy.

20140722_DetroitDetroit’s Brightmoor neighborhood  –  Homes used to stand 35 feet apart along this street.

 A different tale emerges from the left side of the ideological spectrum. Taken from a guest column written for, here’s a quote from Jordan Marks, executive director of the National Public Pension Coalition, a group largely funded by public sector unions:

“While public coffers were running dry, Wall Street banks were out to make millions. Mayor Kwame Kilpatrick, who now sits in jail, worked with Wall Street banks that designed an illegal borrowing scheme that evaded state debt limits and piled on unwise interest rate swaps. When interest rates plummeted, Wall Street demanded more than $300 million from Detroit to terminate these swap deals – making a bad situation even worse. These same Wall Street firms stand to make millions if other cities move to privatize their pension plans.”

These two tales of Detroit’s struggles both have elements of truth. With respect to Detroit’s municipal bankruptcy, it is unfair to blame public sector unions as the primary cause. While the city’s unions were unwilling to adjust their pensions and benefits until it was too late, even if they had, the city’s finances would have failed anyway because it lost nearly two thirds of its tax base. And while the automotive industry’s unions were unwilling to adjust their pensions and benefits until it was too late, that industry would have shrunk anyway, because very capable foreign competitors gained strength starting back in the 1960’s. It is unrealistic to expect, under any circumstances, that Detroit’s auto industry could have maintained the overwhelming global market share it had up to and through the 1950’s. Without economic diversification, Detroit was destined to fall hard.

The tale that comes from the left, however, strains credulity even further. First of all, public sector unions don’t represent the “left.” They represent the state. When Jordan Marks writes about banks colluding with corrupt politicians, he is referring to politicians elected and controlled by public sector unions. His assertion that “Wall Street banks” exploited Detroit does not reflect reality. Bankers issue bonds – debt – to cities who willingly borrow the funds because their union agenda forces them to spend more than they collect in taxes and fees. Government pension fund managers pour billions of dollars into Wall Street investment firms every year. Bankers and city governments – controlled by government unions – work together to exploit taxpayers and private businesses. They use the state power of imprisonment to enforce punitive levels of taxation, to pay down debt and unfunded liabilities incurred so they could live beyond their means. Wall Street bankers and municipal government unions work together to build a financial house of cards, and when it collapses they deserve equal blame.

How Detroit has solved its pension crisis will not please the ideologues. For the libertarian right, the failure to throw everyone into 401K plans must rankle. For the left, the new plan’s built in “triggers” that adjust benefits when necessary to compensate for possible future shortfalls in investment returns violates their goal of an immutable defined benefit. But it works. And the libertarian’s ideological enthusiasm for individual 401Ks contradicts their entirely valid criticism of overly optimistic investment return projections on the part of pension funds (Detroit’s was 7.9% a year). When the market tanks, and periodically it does, only a pooled plan with multi-generational, active payees plus retired participants, with adjustable benefits, can maintain solvency through a balance of contributions from active workers and returns from invested assets. A pooled 401K plan is nothing more than an ideologically impure version of individual 401K plans. An adjustable defined benefit plan is nothing more than an ideologically impure version of a fixed defined benefit plan. They can be functionally identical, two tales of the same thing, and they are both practical compromises.

Detroit’s failures, and Detroit’s probable ascendancy from now on, is easy to describe using hyperbole and polemics. But ultimately there is one destiny, one tale in reality, that will define Detroit’s future. Cutting through the rhetoric, cities around the nation may look to Detroit for answers, especially regarding their new pension plan, because Detroit has passed through a clarifying crucible of pain and self-evaluation that cities with better weather and more diversified economies have deferred. One big market correction will erase those advantages. The tale of Detroit makes for compelling analysis, from New York to LA.

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Ed Ring is the executive director of the California Policy Center.

5 replies
  1. Avatar
    YEEEHAAA says:

    The right says bla bla bla.
    The left says bla bla bla.

    But nobody says the truth of what happened to gut Detroit’s population, not even Ed (gonadless) Ring. The population decline in Detroit was driven by demographic changes that resulted in ‘white flight’. The low crime tax paying whites left the city and what was left behind were jobless tax consuming minorities. Various governmental services cut, pensions went unfunded – but not welfare, EBT cards, and so on.

    Moving on to the present, Ed Ring would have you believe that the government employees came to a consensus with the city of Detroit to reform the pension mess. HARDLY. Police have ZERO REDUCTION IN THEIR MONTHLY PENSION ALLOTMENT, with only the loss of the forward COLA for a period of time. Non-safety employees had about a 5% haircut with the same loss of COLA. Not that I’m suggesting there should have been bigger cuts, BECAUSE THERE SHOULD BE NO CUTS AT ALL – these people worked in hell (Detroit) to earn those pensions. BUT to write an article that shows even an inkling of cooperation in the resolution of the pension fiasco that is Detroit is dishonest at best BECAUSE IN REALITY NOTHING HAS BEEN DONE.


    Your biggest fan (hobble hobble)

  2. Avatar
    S and P 500 says:

    I just saw the “American Greed” episode about Mayor Kilpatrick–absolutely incredible story of municipal corruption (see it on Hulu) narrated by Stacy Keach. The show didn’t devote any time to the interest rate swaps, so I’d be curious who got the city into those deals with Wall Street.

  3. Avatar
    Roanman says:

    Such silly nonsense.

    Cities from around the nation looking to Detroit for answers for their dead broke pension plans better hope to God that they hold title to a regional treasure like The Detroit Institute of Arts, because if they don’t they are toast.

    Won’t be no “Grand Bargain” for Flint. Watch Flint retirees get it shoved straight up their ……

  4. Avatar
    Kman says:

    It is tragic how the liberals killed the goose that laid the golden egg. Detroit was the wealthiest, most productive city in the world. Today it is the result of complete liberal domination. The public sector unions have given themselves impossible promises with outdated business models of pensions. Today, the largest employer of Detroit is the city itself. The tragedy of Detroit is that the Democrats won’t stop until the entire country is ruined like they ruined Detroit.

  5. Avatar
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